A "typical" Lead Acid battery cured plate quality control sample for routine phase ID and quantification of phases.
Sulphuric Acid and organic binder is slowly added into Lead Oxide (commercial grade containing some "Free" Lead metal ) is mixed into a paste; which is applied to Lead metal grids. The sample was then cured for ~2days at ~50 to 90 degrees Celsius as per a standard factory regime.
Problems on the pattern :
The latest sets of the ICDD should have all these phases present. Previous versions of the ICDD (i.e., pre 1997, may have had problems identifying phases such as the basic lead sulphates due to non-optimal reference data). Identification of some of the trace phases, (e.g., Lanarkite and Hydrocerussite) can be tricky as composition and thus its intensities and peak positions can vary.